在進行核心肌群的訓練時,比方說棒式(Plank)仰臥起坐等,是否有聽過教練說「肚臍往脊椎的方向縮緊」,這到底是什麼原因呢?在「NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training」書中有提到「drawing in」,有說明到這個原因,一起來看一看囉。

首先,在書上的「Scientifi c Rationale for Core Stabilization Training」小節,提到了以下的內容:

Researchers have found that individuals with chronic LBP (approximately 80% of U.S. adults) have decreased activation of certain muscles or muscle groups, including the transverse abdominis, internal obliques, pelvic floor muscles, multifidus, diaphragm, and deep erector spinae .

(研究發現美國有80%的成年人有長期下背疼痛的情況,他們身體特定肌肉群的活躍性已經降低,像是腹橫肌、腹內斜肌、骨盆底肌、多裂肌、橫隔膜、豎脊肌。)

Individuals with chronic LBP also tend to have weaker back extensor muscles and decreased muscular endurance.  Trunk muscle weakness by itself is an independent risk factor for developing LBP .

(長期下背疼痛的人往往背伸肌群也較弱而且肌耐力降低。軀幹肌肉無力對於下背疼痛的發展是一個獨立的危險因素。)

註:LBP = (Lower Back Pain) 下背疼痛

Numerous studies also support the role of core training in the prevention and rehabilitation of LBP. Core stabilization exercises restore the size, activation, and endurance of the multifidus (deep spine muscle) in individuals with LBP.

(許多研究指出訓練核心肌群能防止下背疼痛的發生並且有助於復健。核心穩定性的訓練可以恢復肌肉的大小、活化肌肉及增加多裂肌的耐力。)

In addition, a proper application of specific core training programs can reduce pain and help improve function and performance. Specific instructions on the neuromechanical activation of the local stabilization system (drawing in) and the global movement system (bracing) have demonstrated preferential activation of these specifics muscles during the core training continuum.

(除此之外,特定的核心肌群的訓練方式可以減少下背疼痛並且有助提升功能及表現。在脊椎神經上的二個的動作的指示已經被證明在進行核心訓練時優先活化這些特定的肌肉:一個是局部穩定系統的Drawing In,另一個是全面動作系統的Brawing。)

註:書上將核心肌肉分成local stabilization system、global stabilization system與movement system。

山姆伯伯引出了「DRAWING-IN MANEUVER」,接下來了解這是什麼囉。

■ DRAWING-IN MANEUVER

Research has demonstrated that electromyogram (EMG) activity is increased during pelvic stabilization and transverse abdominis activation when an abdominal drawing-in maneuver is initiated before activity.

( 在訓練開始前,腹部先進行內縮的動作。在這個情況下,在骨盆穩定及腹橫肌激活的狀態時,肌電圖活動是增加的。)

Research has found that the transverse abdominis, when properly activated, creates tension in the thoracolumbar fascia, contributing to spinal stiffness, and compresses the sacroiliac joint, increasing stability. These findings have led other researchers to further understand and demonstrate the important role of the transverse abdominis on spinal stability and LBP.

(研究也發現,當腹橫肌被適當的激活時,參與脊柱直挺的胸腰筋膜會產生一個張力,並且壓縮薦髂關節,增加穩定度。這個發現也引領了其它的研究員了解及證明腹橫肌在脊柱穩定及下背疼痛中所扮演的重要角色。)

▲圖:DRAWING-IN MANEUVER (肚臍往脊椎方向縮緊)

To perform the drawing-in maneuver, pull in the region just below the navel toward the spine and maintain the cervical spine in a neutral position. Maintaining a neutral spine during core training helps to improve posture, muscle balance, and stabilization.

( Drawing in maneuver的動作是將肚臍往脊椎的方向內收,頸椎保持自然中立的位置。在核心訓練時,保持脊椎的中立有助於改善姿勢、肌肉平衡及穩定度。)

If a forward protruding head is noticed during the drawing-in maneuver, the sternocleidomastoid (large neck muscle) is preferentially recruited, which increases the compressive forces in the cervical spine and can lead to pelvic instability and muscle imbalances as a result of the pelvo-ocular reflex.

(在做Drawing-in manuever時,要留意頭部前凸的狀況。這時胸鎖乳突被優先徵召,增加頸椎的壓力,並且導致骨盆的不穩與肌肉不平衡,這是「Pelvo-ocular reflex」所導致的一個結果。)

註:何謂「Pelvo-ocular refoex」,可以參考「Nasm Essentials of Corrective Exercise Training」的解釋。可以簡單的說,就是骨盆往你眼睛的方向進行轉動。

下一次在進行核心肌群的訓練時,不要只是進行動作時腹部才收緊,而是在預備時就要收緊囉。但要養成這個習慣,不簡單,慢慢來囉。

 

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原文出處:開始訓練的第一步,縮緊腹部!

山姆伯伯工作坊官網:http://www.unclesam.cc/blog/

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